This text examines the research and evidence connecting birth practices to breastfeeding outcomes. It takes an in-depth look at the post-birth experiences of the mother and baby, using the baby’s health as the vehicle and the intact mother-baby dyad as the model to address birth practices that affect breastfeeding. The Second Edition has been completely revised to include new information on infant outcomes, including epidural anesthesia and Cesarean surgery, clinical strategies for helping the mother and baby recover from birth injuries, medications and complications, and information on Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiatives with a Mother-Friendly Module.